The Wikipedia definition is excellent. The IMF (2000) identified four basic aspects of globalization: trade and transactions, capital movements and investment, migration of people and the dissemination of knowledge. Global heating and the financial crisis of 2008 are both global phenomena.

Relevant papers:

Michie (2018)


International Monetary Fund (2000). “Globalization: Threats or Opportunity.” 12 April 2000: IMF Publications.

Michie, J. (2018). Forms of globalisation: from ‘capitalism unleashed’ to a global green new deal, European Journal of Economics and Economic Policies, 15(2), 163-173. doi:

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