Production refers to economic activities, usually marketed but including government services, classified in the UN System of National Accounts. These activities (outputs) generally require inputs of land, capital, labour, energy and other goods and services using technical knowledge for their production. Input-output tables show, for countries & regions, the inputs per unit of output for a specific period, usually a year. They are used in input-output models to allow for industrial structure and or intermediate demand.

The production function is a neoclassical concept that is contested as bogus and immeasurable in new economics.

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